- 运营日期 10月. - 4月.
- 长度 2 小时
- 项目 船游, 寻猎极光
- 难度 容易
- 语言 English
Faxafloi is a large bay in the southwest of Iceland, located between the peninsulas Snaefellsnes (to the north) peninsula and Reykjanes (to the south).
The main fjords of the bay are Borgarfjordur, Hvalfjordur, Kollafjordur and Hafnarfjordur. Some of Iceland's largest towns are located by the bay and Iceland's capital, Reykjavik, lies on its southeastern shore.
Faxafloi bay is popular for whale- and birdwatching, sea angling and has great fishing grounds. In Kollafjordur is Videy Island, featuring the Lennon/One Peacetower, Richard Scerra's 'Milestones' and other attractions, along with great birdlife. The mountain ring seen from the bay, among which Snaefellsjokull glacier may be spotted on clear days, is particularly beautiful.
Reykjanes is a peninsula in Southwest Iceland, characterised by immense lava fields, volcanoes and strong geothermal activity.
Volcanic & Geothermal Activity
The peninsula runs along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge where the Eurasian and the North American tectonic plates are drifting apart. Because of this geological setting, the whole peninsula is extremely volcanically active, covered with lava fields and volcanoes and small earthquakes are very common there.
During the middle ages, many eruptions occurred in Reykjanes, but no eruptions have been recorded there for the last 500 years.
The main geothermal areas of Reykjanes are Gunnuhver, Krýsuvik and Svartsengi. Various mud pools and fumaroles can be seen at Gunnuhver while Krýsuvik is characterised by hot springs and mud pots that bestow multicoloured hues upon the soil. The green crater lake Grænavatn is also an impressive sight.
Svartsengi is home to a geothermal power station that produces 76.5 MW of electricity from the 475 litres of 90° C warm water that gush from the earth per second. The mineral-rich surplus water fills up the Blue Lagoon spa.
Nature & Wildlife
Reykjanes' cliffs are teeming with birdlife. Its best-known bird colony resides in Krýsuvikurbjarg which is the nesting place of approximately 80 thousand seabirds. North of Krýsuvíkurbjarg is Kleifarvatn, the largest lake on the peninsula and one of the deepest in Iceland.
Reykjanes is hammered by some of the most breathtaking breaker waves in the world. A short drive from Krýsuvík is Selvogur where one is able to witness some of the country's greatest waves. On Reykjanestá, the southwest tip of the peninsula, the waves are known to reach heights of 20-30 meters.
The peninsula's north side is dotted with fishing villages and towns, most notably Keflavík, Sandgerði, Garður and Vogar. Grindavík town is located on the south shore of the peninsula.
Near Keflavík is the Miðnesheiði heath, where the international airport, Leifsstöð (also known as Keflavíkurflugvöllur or ‘Keflavík Airport’) is located.
The World-Famous Spa
On the southern tip of the peninsula is the Blue Lagoon geothermal spa, an ideal place for relaxing and bathing.
Akrafjall is a mountain located on the Akranes Peninsula on the west coast of Iceland.
Mount Akrafjall is a lone and eye-catching mountain that rises between the coastlines of Hvalfjörður Fjord and Leirárvogur Bay. The mountain covers most of its hosting peninsula’s landmass, as it rises close to the coastlines on each side. Its highest summit is Geirmundartindur with a peak of 643 metres.
Geology and History
The distinctive shape of Akrafjall is due to periods of formation during the last Ice Age, where what is now the top of the mountain used to host a glacier. As the glacier melted, it left a noticeable dent in the middle of the mountain, while its slopes remained steep.
The south side of the mountain, as seen from the perspective of Fjord Hvalfjörður, consists of a single, steep slope. The north side, however, as seen from the town of Akranes, displays two peaks or shoulders on each side, that are divided by a valley in the middle called Berjadalur.
Geologists have discovered a history of strandflat in the mountain's sedimentary rock layers, suggesting that it was an island surrounded by water before the glacial retreat. The lava that formed Akrafjall dates back to 4,5-3 million years, with its main rock type being basalt.
Hiking Mt. Akrafjall
The mountain is relatively easy to ascend, and the top provides for one of the best views in western Iceland. Starting out from the Akranes Water Works car park, signs indicate the different paths up the mountain.
There are two separate places to park and start the trek, so visitors should make sure to choose the correct side of the Berjadalsá River before starting their ascent, which takes between 2 and 5 hours.
The shoulder to the right of the mountain, as seen from Akranes, is called Háihnúkur and has a peak of 555 metres. This south summit is the more popular destination for hikers and hosts a guestbook for visitors to sign.
A slightly longer hike leads to the opposite summit of Geirmundartindur, the mountain’s highest peak at 643 metres. There is also an existing loop route that combines the two main summits along with other minor high points. The route is roughly 10 kilometres and has a change in elevation of 600 metres.
From the top, one can see the vastness of the greater Faxaflói Bay, with a panoramic view that stretches from the Reykjanes Peninsula to the Snæfellsnes Peninsula, and its resident glacial volcano Snæfellsjökull.
The capital of Reykjavík can also be spotted, as well as an abundance of fjords, valleys and neighbouring mountains.
Along the base of the western side of Geirmundartindur, one can find the remains of a military aircraft that crashed there back in 1955.
The Icelandic seabirds fulmars and great black-backed gulls also nest in the cliffs of Akrafjall.
The mountain Esja, often called Esjan, is situated in Kjalarnes in the south-west corner of Iceland.
Only 10 kilometres from the city of Reykjavík across Faxaflói Bay, the mountain towers over the capital’s skyline. In reality, Esja is not a true mountain in itself, but a volcanic range, the highest peak of which reaches 914 metres (2,999 feet) tall.
Geology and History
Esja's formation dates back to the beginning of the last Ice Age. Magma rising from eruptions formed layers of lava beneath a glacier, and when the ice retreated, it ground much of it away and left the mountain in its current form.
Since Iceland is situated on the boundary between two tectonic plates, Eurasia and North America, the continuous tension pushes the sedimentary soil to the west. This makes the western part of the range the oldest (at about 3.2 million years) and the eastern part the youngest (at about 1.8 million years).
Esja is composed of basalt and tuff rock.
Hiking and precautionary measures
Because of the mountain's proximity to the capital city (less than an hour by car, or accessible by taking two regular buses), Esja is an extremely popular hiking destination for locals and visitors alike. The path up the mountain is divided into different sections, with signs indicating the difficulty of each route.
The most well-known paths lead to the separate summits of Þverfellshorn (780 metres / 2,560 feet) and Kerhólakambur (851 metres / 2,790 feet).
The highest point is called Hábunga and requires an additional three-kilometre trek northeast from Þverfellshorn. Approximately 200 metres from the top, hikers find themselves at a large rock named Steinn where they are faced with three options: continuing on the marked trail, climbing directly to the peak, or simply enjoying the great views before descending.
When hiking Esjan, it is important to be equipped with proper hiking gear, with a good knowledge of your capabilities. It is also imperative that you get the weather forecast ahead of arrival, so you know what precautions to take.
Avalanches and accidents can and do claim lives; in fact, according to The Iceland Touring Association, Esjan holds the most accidents in Icelandic nature. If you take necessary precautions and do not push your limits, however, you minimise the risk to yourself dramatically.
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