Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

I have been writing about the historical Hjörleifshöfði promontory in my last travel-blogs. Now I want to tell you about the dreaded volcano Katla, which Icelanders have been brought up to fear as the Katla eruptions are amongst the biggest cataclysms in Iceland. 

North of Hjörleifshöfði the infamous volcano Mt. Katla is lurking beneath the 590 sq.km ice cap of Mýrdalsjökull glacier, waiting to spew out its lava and ash clouds.  

South of Hjörleifshöfði  promontory you will find Kötlutangi - the Katla spit, the southernmost point of the mainland of Iceland, which was created in the catastrophic Katlaeruption in 1918.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

There are several recorded eruptions in Katlafrom 1580, 1612, 1625, 1660, 1721, 1755, 1823, 1860 and 1918...  we also know of 11 Katlaeruptions since the Settlement of Iceland until 1580. Tephrochronology proves that there were Katlaeruptions in the period of 894-934 and there are some records from the Katlaeruption in the year 1000 and again in 1179 when Katlaerupted followed by a massive glacial flood. There were other eruptions in 1245 and 1262 etc.

You can read about the Sturluhlaupglacial flood, which followed the Katlaeruption in 1311, a little bit further on in my travel-blog. There were several other Katla eruptions in the following centuries so you can see that the notorious Katlahas erupted quite a few times since the Settlement of Iceland until 1918 when it last erupted.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

The ice that melts in Mýrdalsjökull glacier due to the volcanic eruptions in Katla collects in the middle of the glacier like in a bowl - the caldera is ca 100 sq.km. The volcanic eruption heats up the glacial water until it starts to boil and creates enough pressure for it to burst through the 400-600 metre thick Mýrdalsjökull glacier, which covers the caldera - and a roaring glacial flood rushes at a great speed in the direction of the sea. 

When Katlavolcano erupts there is a massive glacial outburst with immense glacial floods carrying huge icebergs which then end up in the sea south of Hjörleifshöfði - or on the sand. These floods are so massive that the shoreline can extend for some kilometres! Kötlutangispit was formed in the Katlaeruption in 1918 when the shoreline extended for some 3 kilometres!  

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

There was a fjord, Kerlingarfjörður fjord, by Hjörleifshöfði until the 14th century when the glacial floods from Katla extended the shoreline.  And the major part of the huge Mýrdalssandur sand plains was created when Katla has erupted.

Just to show you how massive this glacial outburst was then the depth of the sea here, where there is sand now, was 20 fathoms!

When the glacial flood reaches the sea a tsunami-like phenomenon occurs and the sea bounces back and crashes onto the coastline. I always think about this when I visit this area, what extraordinary forces of nature there are at work here - I would not want to be anywhere close when this happens again.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

But people have been close and witnessed this massive glacial flood.  

Kjartan Leifur Markússon (1895-1964), the father of the current owners of Hjörleifshöfði, lived on the promontory from 1895-1920. He was on top of Hjörleifshöfðion the day Katla erupted on the 12th of October 1918 and witnessed the roaring glacial flood passing Hjörleifshöfði at a great speed.  What an absolutely frightening sight this must have been. 

Kjartan said that there were earthquakes for one hour followed by a steam cloud over Mýrdalsjökullglacier and then a massive glacial flood rushed down to the sea carrying with it huge icebergs which then covered the sea with ice. Some of the icebergs which were left ashore, stuck in the sand, were larger than 20 metres!  

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

Kjartan witnessed when the flood and icebergs hit the promontory with great force, creating waves of glacial water and crumbled into smaller pieces with ice flying up high in the air. Just imagine the great racket when these icebergs tumbled in this massive flood and hit the promontory!  

Kjartan witnessed this from above standing on top of Hjörleifshöfði- what an impact this must have had on this 23-year-old man to be so close to these great forces of nature!

Those who have witnessed eruptions in the notorious Katlahave talked about deafening thunders and lighting and such thick volcanic ash that there was total darkness. I think most of us remember the ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcano back in 2010 - this is much worse!

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

It is possible to drive down to Kötlutangispit, but it is a difficult road as you can see on the sign above - "illfær vegur" in Icelandic means a difficult road, so a 4x4 is needed. 

My husband drove down to the southernmost part of the mainland of Iceland, while I had a closer look at the pillars of rocks on the sand in front of Hjörleifshöfðipromontory.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

These black sands plains - which are glacial outwash, were, and still are in some places, a great hindrance and in heavy wind one could expect dreadful sandstorms in this area. These sandstorms would be so thick, as it were, that you could not pass through them and had to stop the car in the middle of ring-road 1 if you were caught in a sandstorm in this area. Several times ring-road 1 was impassable because of these sandstorms.

I was once caught in a sandstorm in this area at Sólheimasandur and it was really scary. It ruins the paint on the car and that is why a special car insurance is offered when you drive through the sand plains in South-Iceland. I was travelling with my girlfriend at the time and all traffic stopped - fortunately we could seek shelter next to a bus. But I can tell you that we were very scared. And the paint on her car got badly damaged. This was back in 1990 and since then the sand plains in this area have been revegetated with lupine to stop these sandstorms.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

In the photo below you can see Dyrhólaey, which was the southernmost point of the mainland of Iceland from the Settlement of Iceland until Kötlutangipit was created in the Katlaeruption in 1918. In front of Dyrhólaey in my photo, you will see Reynisdrangarpillars of rock by the village of Vík.  This area is so ruggedly beautiful.

It is believed that the sea erodes Kötlutangi by ca 10 metres every year and thus 100 metres in a decade. Satellite imagery from 2003 shows that back then Kötlutangi was still 500 metres further south than Dyrhólaey. If the sea erodes Kötlutangi by 100 metres in a decade then Kötlutangi still has the upper hand for more than 4 decades. We will see how far it will reach in the next Katla eruption and the floods that will follow.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

The Iceland GeoSurvey (Íslenskar orkurannsóknir) survey Kötlutangi regularly by GPS to know the status of this southernmost part of the mainland of Iceland.  In 2013 some 2,8 km had eroded from Kötlutangi since the eruption in 1918.

When standing on Kötlutangi you have a good view of Dyrhólaey. I will be writing travel-blogs on Dyrhólaeyand Reynisdrangarsoon.

Dyrhólaey, being as it is, a steady rock and not made of volcanic sand, doesn't change its position like Kötlutangipit, or at least we hope it won't ;)

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

It is believed that the lava sand plains, the volcanic glacial outwash, now surrounding Hjörleifshöfði had, before the glacial floods in 1721 in Katla, been covered in grass, but that these massive glacial floods destroyed the meadows.

According to Þjóðsögur Jóns Árnasonar - the Folklore of Jón Árnason, which I often refer to in my travel-blogs, as I love folklorethe Katla volcano got its name from a sorceress called Katla.  She was the cook at Þykkvabæjarklaustur monastery, which was built in 1169. 

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

Inside Kötlujökull -the Katla glacier!

This folklore explains to us why this notorious volcano is called Katla. I translated this folklore into English and added it to my travel-blog on the Katla Ice Cave as it explains how Katla is to blame for the glacier bursts.

Sturluhlaup - the Glacial flood of Sturla

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

There are several accounts of people being in grave danger when Katla erupted through the centuries. This account can be found in Markús Loftsson's Eldrit, but Markús lived on Hjörleifshöfði and I have told you about him in the article the Historical Hjörleifshöfði Promontory - the Hike and the Inhabitants.

One of the glacial floods has been called Sturluhlaupor the Glacial flood of Sturla.  This flood happened in 1311 when one of the most catastrophic and virulent volcanic eruptions in Katlatook place. At that time the farmer Sturla Arngrímsson lived at Láguey. In 1311 Mýrdalssandur sand plains had many farms, but all of them got destroyed in this glacial flood.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

On the first Sunday after Christmas in the year 1311, Katlaerupted and a massive glacial flood followed. On this particular day, Sturla went out of the farm and up to the wall around the farm. From there he noticed the water torrent rushing down this area heading for the farm. 

Sturla ran into the farm and grabbed his newborn baby from the arms of his wife, who was lying in bed. He asked God to help the other people inside the farm. As soon as he got out of the farm the glacial flood reached the farm and destroyed it.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

The glacial flood carried with it a massive iceberg and Sturla managed to get on top of the iceberg with the baby. They were carried out to sea on the iceberg and on shore again at Meðallandsfjörur 5 weeks later!

As Sturla had no provisions on the iceberg and had to keep his baby alive - he cut his nipples and had the baby suck blood from them, thus his baby survived. Sturla was a strong and healthy man and this ordeal didn't seem to have harmed him much.

                                                              ---------------------

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

The Katla ice cave

A farm by the name of Lambey in this area got totally destroyed in the Sturluhlaup glacial flood along with the other farms in this area. The destruction was total and there were no signs left that people had ever lived in this area, everything was covered in sand and pumice.

The next spring some men were riding through the sand where Lambey had stood before the flood.  

One of the horses stuck its foot in the sand leaving a big hole in the sand.  They heard a dog barking from the hole underneath their feet. They started digging and found a storehouse where fish and butter had been stored in Lambey.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

They found a girl in the storehouse and a dog. She had been sent to the storehouse to get fish and butter for the household and the dog had accompanied her. She was carrying a light with her as it had been dark outside.

She had been inside the storehouse when the glacial flood rushed down and had been stuck inside the storehouse ever since. She and the dog had kept themselves alive by eating the fish and the butter, but these provisions had almost run out.  

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

Fortunately, she was carrying the light and had been able to keep the light alive by using the butter and her torn up clothes. She was fully alert and knew exactly what day it was.  She said that the companionship she got from the dog had kept her from going insane.

                                                                -----------------------------

This glacial flood, Sturluhlaup, happened so quickly that the daughter of a minister was found dead by Dýralækur with her comb in her head, but she had been combing her hair at the time of the glacial flood reaching the rectory.

The Glacial flood in 1721

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

There is one account from the Katla eruption in 1721 which destroyed the farm by Hjörleifshöfði promontory. At the time of the glacial flood the farmer at Hjörleifshöfði,Ólafur Ólafssonwas at the church in Höfðabrekka (close by), but his wife, Sigríður Jónsdóttir, was at home with their baby and the shepherd, who was in his teens.

The shepherd had walked out of the farm and seen the roaring glacial flood heading for the farm. He immediately went into the farm and quickly warned the lady of the house.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

She told the shepherd to take the baby in the crib and she herself grabbed butter and fish and some linen and hurried outside.  

They managed to escape into a cave called Kálfaból.  After this flood, the farm, which had stood at Bæjarstæði, where Hjörleifur had built his farm, was moved up onto Hjörleifshöfði.

This account is found in Eldrit from 1880, written by Markús Loftsson.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

When I was younger and until maybe a decade ago there were huge black sand plains on the south coast, but it looks totally different now after the State Soil Conservation Service and the Icelandic Road Administration joined hands and started planting lupine to prevent sandstorms in this area. You can see the beautiful violet lupine in my 2 photos above.

Now we have stretches of violet lupine in places where there was only black lava sand. I love this change as I was always afraid while driving through the vast sand plains. The lupine then turns green and it looks so thick, like a beautiful thick blanket covering the black sand beneath.  

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

The only places where I have seen sandstorms now are further south by the sea.

Now we are waiting for Katlato erupt again as it hasn't erupted since 1918 - I hope the glacial floods won't totally ruin the revegetation in this area, but that is to be expected. 

Kötlutangi is on the coast of South-Iceland, on Mýrdalssandur beach, just east of the village of Vík. From Vík, drive along ring-road 1, then turn onto the road marked Hjörleifshöfði.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

Here is the location of Kötlutangi on the map. And on the map below you will see how far the glacial floods travel from Kötlujökull glacier.

This is a very popular route with lots of beautiful attractions nearby f.ex. glaciers and beautiful waterfalls and tandem flights from Vík.

Katla Volcano and Kötlutangi Spit - the Southernmost Point of the Mainland of Iceland

Map from the Icelandic Land Survey

Also, check out the guided tours in South-Iceland: 

Have a lovely time in South-Iceland, but be on the look-out for Katla!

联系 Regína