了解 赫马岛

西人岛是世界上最主要的海鹦聚集地之一。

赫马岛(Heimaey)是冰岛西人群岛(Westman Islands)中最大的岛屿,约有4000名居民,是群岛中的唯一有人居住的岛屿,其历史却悠久而“黑暗”。

奴隶、海盗、火山与赫马岛

据记载,第一批登上赫马岛的定居者是两名从主人手下逃脱的奴隶。这两名爱尔兰人原是英格尔夫·阿纳尔松(Ingólfur Arnarson)——冰岛首位定居者及雷克雅未克命名者——义兄的奴隶,他们为摆脱奴隶身份而杀害了主人,后为躲避追杀️而逃亡至赫马岛。

可是他们的逃跑并未成功。阿纳尔松立即发现了兄弟的尸体,也看到了奴隶从冰岛南岸乘船逃逸,朝向一座孤岛航行。阿纳尔松一路紧随其后,杀死了其中一个之后,将另一个奴隶也逼上了跳崖自杀的绝路。

由于当时的爱尔兰人被统称为“西人”(Westmen),所以从那时起,这座被“西人”首次登陆的岛屿以及周围的其他岛屿就被称为“西人岛”,而奴隶跳下去的悬崖也以其名字Dufþakur来命名:Dufþekja。

经考古学家考证,赫马岛上留有公元800年左右(英格尔夫·阿纳尔松出生前)人类居住的痕迹,这说明在冰岛有人定居之前已有人居住。但根据冰岛古文献《定居之书》记载,赫马岛自公元900年才开始有人定居。

赫马岛的定居人口缓慢上涨,岛上的家庭规模也渐渐扩大。赫马岛水域蕴藏的丰富渔业资源也逐渐为人所知。在冰岛仍被丹麦殖民统治的时期,丹麦政府也曾在赫马岛建立房屋,将其用作重要港口之一。

赫马岛历史最黑暗的时期莫过于1627年的海盗侵扰。海盗主要来自阿尔及尔地区以及奥斯曼帝国的巴伐利亚舰队。他们对冰岛的海岸线和岛屿进行突袭,生活在冰岛主岛的人们还可以离开村庄,躲入深山或野外;但生活在赫马岛的居民却被困于岛上,无处可逃。最终共有237名赫马岛居民被海盗掳获。

其中只有100余人被释放回冰岛,其余大部分人都被卖往奴隶市场。一名侥幸被救的牧师将这段难以回首的惨痛历史记录了下来。

赫马岛的悲痛历史不止于此。虽然海盗侵袭后的三个世纪内,赫马岛并无人祸,但一切的宁静都被1973年的火山爆发打破。

1973年,赫马岛迎来了岛屿历史上最严重的火山爆发。火山惊醒了小镇居民,大地皲裂,岩浆延绵,摧毁了400多间房屋,小镇几乎毁于一旦。但奇迹般地,这次火山爆发中仅有一个伤亡,其他5300名居民均及时逃离,被送往冰岛主岛。

为了防止岩浆扩散,冰岛搜救队联合美国军队合力将海水浇到火山顶部,加速熔岩的冷却。此举挽救了赫马岛的港口,也间接拯救了小岛最重要的经济命脉。

今日赫马岛

每年夏天,可爱的海鹦都会来冰岛筑巢栖居。

今天的赫马岛是西人岛人的温馨家园,也以其独特的魅力吸引了无数游客。博物馆记录了岛屿的恢弘历史,您也可以在Eldheimar火山博物馆了解火山爆发的经过。您还可以亲自攀至Eldfell火山口,遥想1973年火山爆发的骇人威力。

西人岛地区最引人瞩目的特色就是每年夏季栖居于此的北极海鹦,赫马岛也是冰岛乃至世界最大的海鹦聚居地。从5月到9月,您都可以在西人岛的悬崖峭壁上寻觅到海鸟的踪迹;您也可以报名参加观海鹦、观鲸旅行团,近距离欣赏海鹦的萌态,顺道寻觅鲸鱼与海豚的优雅踪影。

8、9月时,小镇内甚至也会出现飞翔的海鹦。这些海鹦错将城市的灯光误认作海洋的光芒,所以才会进入城市,被困在岛上。西人岛也有一个传统:孩子们会去寻找这些迷路的海鹦,将它们安全地放生回海里(也有一些小孩会在发现海鹦后,让游客付款体验放生,以此赚一些零用钱)。

附近的旅行资源 赫马岛

所有种类 50km 半径

附近的景点 赫马岛

韦斯特曼纳群岛(西人岛)

The Westman Islands, or Vestmannaeyjar, are an archipelago of 15 islands and 30 rock stacks off the South Coast of Iceland. Aside from their incredi...

浏览

凯雷特切利尔

Klettshellir is the largest and best known cave in the Westman Islands. The cave lies innermost of sea rock Ystiklettur. It is quite high and has a d...

浏览

Eldfell火山

Photo by Regína Hrönn Ragnarsdóttir Eldfell is a volcano in the Westman Islands, off south Iceland, which famously erupted in...

浏览

Elephant Rock

Elephant Rock is a natural rock formation on the Westman Islands archipelago, located approximately 7.4 kilometres off Iceland's south coast.&nb...

浏览

Surtsey

Surtsey is a volcanic island, part of the Westman Islands and formed by an underwater volcanic eruption in 1963.  Surtsey was declared a na...

浏览

塞里雅兰瀑布

Seljalandsfoss is a waterfall that can be fully encircled, situated on the South Coast of Iceland with a drop of 60 metres (200 feet). Due to the ...

浏览

Gljufrabui

Gljúfrabúi (or Canyon Dweller) is a beautiful waterfall located at Hamragarðar in South Iceland, close to its better known counter...

浏览

Akurey

Akurey is an island in Kollafjörður Bay in west Iceland. It is best known for its puffin watching opportunities in summer. Location of Aku...

浏览

Nauthúsagil

Photo by Regína Hrönn Ragnarsdóttir. Nauthúsagil is a narrow ravine in South Iceland, located beneath the glacial volcano E...

浏览

Þorvaldseyri

Credit: Wikimedia, Creative Commons, Photo by Matt Riggott Þorvaldseyri is a historic farm located beneath Iceland’s most famous volcano,...

浏览

科沃尔斯瓦特鲁

Hvolsvöllur is a small town of 950 people in south Iceland, conveniently located by the Ring Road. It is often travelled through or stopped off...

浏览

Fljótshlíð

  Fljotshlid is a beautiful farming district in southern Iceland. It is one of the main sites for Njal's Saga, a masterpiece of the saga lit...

浏览

Seljavallalaug秘密温泉泳池

 Credit: Wikimedia, Creative Commons, photo by Johannes Martin. Seljavallalaug is an outdoor swimming pool in South Iceland, roughly ten kilomet...

浏览

埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖(艾雅法拉火山)

The glacier volcano of Eyjafjallajökull is notorious the world over for causing havoc to air travel in 2010, and stumping television anchors ev...

浏览

斯科加瀑布

Skógafoss is one of Iceland’s biggest and most beautiful waterfalls with an astounding width of 25 meters (82 feet) and a drop of 60 me...

浏览

Gígjökull

  Gígjökull is one of the two glacier outlets of Eyjafjallajökull. The other is Steinholtsjökull. Eyjafjallajökull...

浏览

Skógar

Skógar, in South Iceland, is a tiny village and popular stop for travellers. It has a population of about 20 people, features a regional muse...

浏览

斯科加博物馆

Photo from the Skógar Museum Skógar Museum is a cultural heritage museum in south Iceland. Located near one of the most popular waterf...

浏览

Kvernufoss

Photo by Regína Hrönn Ragnarsdóttir. Kvernufoss is a waterfall with a drop of 30 metres (98 feet) in South Iceland. Considered a h...

浏览

南岸

The South Shore refers to the southern coastline of Iceland and it is one of the country’s most popular sightseeing routes. The South Shore i...

浏览

旅行团 赫马岛

西人岛周边小岛游|岩洞+海鹦+鲸鱼

参加这个旅行团,探访冰岛西人岛(Vestmannaeyjar)的旖旎的海岸胜景与神奇的洞穴景观。这个小众船游带您深度探索冰岛自然的美丽惊喜。......

浏览

火山+南部高地+大冰川小飞机团

这一旅行团将带您飞跃艾雅法拉火山(Eyjafjallajökull)与冰岛内陆高地,从空中俯瞰冰川与高地的壮丽景观。从高处俯瞰,您可以在最好的位置上享受到最好的视野。......

浏览

西人岛2小时快艇船游|西人岛港口出发

参加这个快艇旅行团,近距离领略冰岛韦斯特曼纳群岛(Westman......

浏览

鸟瞰西人群岛-冰岛最南岸|小飞机旅行团,自驾至南岸集合

参加这个小飞机旅行团,飞越冰岛南岸的绝美韦斯特曼纳群岛(Westman......

浏览

Puffin and Volcano Tour | Westman Islands

Immerse yourself in the wonders of the Westman Islands with this excellent tour that combines......

浏览

Westman Island Winter Express Tour

Explore the beautiful Heimaey, the largest island of the Westman Islands, in depth in winter......

浏览

Private Tour of Heimaey in the Westman Islands

Book a private tour of Heimaey, the largest island of the beautiful Vestmannaeyjar archipelago.......

浏览

Adventure Exploration | Bjarnarey Puffin Island

Come along on a ride of a lifetime and explore the outlay isles of the Vestmannaeyjar......

浏览