了解 海克拉火山

Hekla is easy to see throughout much of South Iceland.

海克拉火山(Hekla),亦翻译为赫克拉​​​​​​​火山。 nicknamed ‘the Gateway to Hell’ in the Middle Ages, is one of Iceland’s most explosive, unpredictable and powerful volcanoes. It has erupted twenty to thirty times since settlement, and remains active to this day.

Geography of Hekla

Hekla is located in the south of Iceland, just north of the country’s most famous volcano, Eyjafjallajökull, which last erupted in 2010, causing planes to be grounded and reporters to be tongue-tied for weeks. A dominant peak, standing at 1,491 metres tall (4,892 feet), it can be seen for miles around.

Hekla is part of a 40 kilometre (25 mile) rift, the most active part, called Heklugjá, being under the volcano itself. There are many craters at the peak, two of which are known to erupt more than the others.

Unlike Eyjafjallajökull and Iceland’s other most active volcano, Katla, Hekla does not sit underneath any significant glacier, meaning its eruptions should not cause ash clouds to the same degree. In spite of this, some have been so great that the ash produced was still enough to change the climate of the northern hemisphere for years.

Hekla has also produced one of the greatest lava flows of this millenium of any volcano in the world, at eight cubic kilometres. Approximately 10 percent of Iceland’s landmass was brought up by lava from Hekla.

History of Hekla

The first recorded eruption at Hekla was in 1104, and it was so great and significant that it drew attention across Europe; the effects it had on the weather, on people’s breathing, and on agriculture lasted for years.

This, however, was not the first time it had done so; undiscovered by man, it had contributed to a third of all volcanic ash across northern Europe for the past seven millenia.

It would not significantly erupt again until 1300, although it had been recorded going off several times in between; one of the most notorious things about Hekla is its unpredictability, sometimes exploding within a decade of its last eruption, sometimes laying dormant for nearly a century.

For this reason, the farms around it were largely abandoned, partly explaining why today there are few settlements in Iceland’s south.

Further serious eruptions occurred in 1693 and 1845 with international consequences, but none as significant as the one that began in 1947. Lava bombs weighing over 20 kilograms (44 pounds) landed 32 kilometres away; some as large as 50 square metres (538 square feet) were thrown a kilometre. It took just 52 two hours before the enormous cloud of ash was covering Helsinki.

It would be thirteen months before the eruption stopped, ebbing and flowing with power, but constantly pouring ash into the atmosphere, poisoning crops and livestock.

It is likely many died of respiratory problems as a result, but Hekla even directly killed one person. A scientist filming the great lava flows from the crater, some of which were 15 metres (49 feet) tall, was struck by a block of lava.

Hekla erupted again in 1970 for two months, but since has only gone off for a few days at a time, in 1981, 1982, 1991 and 2000.

Though the 2000 one seemed inconsequential, it was later discovered that it proved that Hekla was even more frightening than was already thought. The remains of a pyroclastic flow, the most dangerous element of an eruption, where searing ash and rock travel at enormous speeds and raze all they meet, had occured for over five kilometres (three miles).

Hekla today

Hekla, stood behind two resting Icelandic horses.

In spite of its volatile nature, Hekla can still be considered a safe place to visit; there are hiking opportunities all around it, and some tour operators embark in super jeeps journeys to its slopes. Visitors should not be afraid of the volcano’s potential, just aware of it.

Of course, before heading to Hekla if travelling without a guide, ensure you check the meteorological office’s website to ensure that there are no alerts that an eruption may be imminent. The volcano is monitored constantly.

In spite of this, Hekla remains as unpredictable as it ever was, and visitors are warned that in spite of every good measure, there is always a chance an eruption could start without being noticed.

Volcanologists also warn that it is overdue, and due to this volcano’s patterns, the warning time between knowing an eruption is imminent and it occurring will often be just an hour or less.

附近的旅行资源 海克拉火山

所有种类 50km 半径

附近的景点 海克拉火山

Krakatindur火山

  Krakatindur is a 858 m volcano in Rangarvallasysla in South Iceland. The volcano is located in the Nyjahraun lava field and belongs to ...

浏览

哈加帕瀑布

Wikimedia, Creative Commons, Photo Credit: Bromr Hjálparfoss is a waterfall (or, officially, a pair of waterfalls that conjoin) in south Icela...

浏览

肖尔索山谷

Þjórsárdalur is a valley in the southern highlands of Iceland, with many beautiful features in its vicinity. Natural sites with...

浏览

Þjóðveldisbærinn á Stöng

At Stong in Thjorsarsalur valley in South Iceland you can see the Thjodveldisbaer, a reconstructed viking turf house based on the ruins of the old man...

浏览

马鬃瀑布

Credit: Wikimedia, Creative Commons. Photo by Kkaefer. Faxi is a wide, serene waterfall in South Iceland. It can be found in the Tungufljót Ri...

浏览

Hólaskógur地区

  Holaskogur is an deforested area (despite the name, 'skogur'='forrest') in Gjupverjaafrettur in the mid highlands of Iceland.&...

浏览

Háifoss瀑布

Háifoss, or the 'High Waterfall', is a waterfall in Fossárdalur valley, innermost of Þjórsárdalur valley, ...

浏览

Tindfjallajökull冰川

Wikimedia, Creative Commons, Photo by Bjoertvedt Tindfjallajökull is the smallest glacier in Iceland, covering an ancient stratovolcano. It...

浏览

Tindfjöll山脉

Tindfjöll is a mountain ridge that runs south from the glacier and volcano Tindfjallajökull. It was formed in an eruption 54,000 years ...

浏览

Landmannaleið路

Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Pietro Landmannaleið, or the F225, is a highland road that leads to the Fjallabak Nature Reserve and t...

浏览

Þríhyrningur山

Wikimedia. Creative Commons. Milan Nykodym.  Þríhyrningur (‘Three Peaks Mountain’) is a mountain found in Katla Ge...

浏览

Brennisteinsalda硫磺火山

  Brennisteinsalda (ca. 855 m) is a volcano in the area of Landmannalaugar National Park, in the south highlands of Iceland. Brennisteinsalda ...

浏览

Torfajökull冰川

Torfajökull is the name of both a stratovolcano and a complex of subglacial volcanoes, north of Mýrdalsjökull glacier in South Icelan...

浏览

Dómadalur山谷

  Domadalur is a valley east of Kringla (Landmannahellir cave) in the south of the Icelandic highlands. The valley has a little shallow lake a...

浏览

Stórasúla山

Stórasúla is a distinctive, cone-shaped mountain found in the southern highlands of Iceland. The mountain has an elevation of 693 m (2...

浏览

Markarfljótsgljúfur峡谷

Photo Credit: Wikimedia. Creative Commons. Borvan53. Markarfljótsgljúfur is a canyon in Iceland's southern Highlands, west of ...

浏览

Laugavegur徒步路线

Laugavegur是冰岛最热门的内陆高地徒步路线,沿途风景苍茫而壮美,多样而瑰丽,尽显冰岛自然的野性与纯粹。 如果打算在冰岛内陆高地地区进行多日徒步游,Laugavegur路线就是游客的完美选择。 许多游客都知道,冰岛首都雷克雅未克的市中心有一条名为Laugavegur的购物主街,恰好与这...

浏览

Fjallabak自然保护区

Fjallabak may refer to Fjallabak Nature Reserve, or two highland routes, South Fjallabaksleið or the North Fjallbaksleið. The name 'Fjal...

浏览

蓝峰

  Blahnjukur (a.k.a. Blahnukur) is a volcano in the area of Landmannalaugar, in the south highlands of Iceland.  Blahnjukur's name (&#...

浏览

弗洛斯塔斯塔达瓦顿

Credit: Wikimedia, Creative Commons. Photo by Gestumblindi. Frostastaðavatn is a highland lake renowned for its vivid blue and green colouration ...

浏览