了解 卡特拉火山

冰岛南岸的卡特拉火山掩藏于厚实的冰盖之下

卡特拉火山(Katla)是冰岛最活跃的大型火山之一,绝大部分掩藏于冰岛南岸的米尔达斯冰川(Mýrdalsjökull,冰岛第四大冰川)之下。卡特拉火山平均每五十年喷发一次,但上一次喷发是在1918年,至今已有百年未曾活动。科学家预测,火山在未来仍有喷发的可能。

卡特拉火山毗邻埃亚菲亚德拉火山(Eyjafjallajökull,又名艾雅法拉火山);艾雅法拉曾在2010年大爆发,巨量火山灰甚至一度阻断了欧洲的航空交通,也对全球气候造成了一定影响。一般来讲,艾雅法拉火山若剧烈活动,在接下来的一个世纪中,卡特拉火山也将随之被触发。地质学家曾在2016年断定,卡特拉火山即将迎来喷发。

卡特拉(Katla)在冰岛语中的原意为“水壶”,同时也是非常常见的冰岛女性名字。

卡特拉火山的地质地理概况

卡特拉火山坐落于冰岛南岸景区的维克镇(Vík)以北,最高处海拔达1512米,其火山口宽达10千米;米尔达斯冰川厚达700米的巨型冰盖掩盖了大部分山体。

因冰层坚厚,火山偶发的小型爆发并不能够破坏冰面,但却足以融解一部分冰川,从而引发突如其来的冰川洪流。卡特拉火山脚下的索尔黑马黑沙原(Sólheimasandur,热门小众景点“飞机残骸”的所在地)即形成于冰川冲刷,但却无比荒芜,无法滋养任何生物。

冰岛最著名的小众景点之一,飞机残骸,就位于卡特拉火山脚下

冰岛南岸多火山爆发,也多冰川洪流,因此聚落稀少;不少城镇都被洪流摧毁殆尽。1918年,卡特拉火山大爆发引发的冰川洪流尤其强劲,造成了极大的破坏;火山喷发出的巨量岩浆还填入海洋,使冰岛南岸的陆地范围延展了近五公里。

艾雅法拉火山与卡特拉火山彼此相邻属于同一火山系统,埃尔德焦峡谷(Eldgjá)亦属于该系统。

卡特拉火山旅行团

米尔达斯冰川面积广大,周围环绕着多条注出分支冰川;掩藏于冰盖之下的卡特拉火山也因此较难通行,旅行团选择相对较少。一些直升机旅行团会在冰川顶部降落,还有一些超级吉普旅行团能带领游客攀上冰川,直抵卡特拉火山。

最热门的卡特拉火山旅行团则是“黑”冰洞探险,全年均可参加。许多游客都会慕名而来,探访这座火山顶部的神秘冰洞,领略火山灰与冰块交织的奇妙纹理,感受冰岛“冰与火”的独特魅力。瓦特纳冰川(Vatnajökull)下的蓝冰洞仅在冬季形成、开放,其他时间来到冰岛,不妨来南岸探访卡特拉冰洞。

观赏卡特拉火山

天气晴朗时,沿一号环岛公路行驶至塞里雅兰瀑布(Seljalandsfoss)与雷尼斯黑沙滩(Reynisfjara)之间的路段,即可眺望到卡特拉火山。参加冰川徒步旅行团,攀登索尔黑马冰川(Sólheimajökull)等米尔达斯注出冰川,也可在冰川之巅眺望到卡特拉火山。

附近的旅行资源 卡特拉火山

所有种类 50km 半径

附近的景点 卡特拉火山

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