了解 埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖

艾雅法拉冰川火山位于冰岛南岸

埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖(Eyjafjallajökull),也译作艾雅法拉冰川,是一座举世闻名的冰岛火山,2010年的火山大爆发曾一度阻断欧洲的航空交通。艾雅法拉冰川海拔1651米,是冰岛南岸的主要景点之一。

地理概况

艾雅法拉冰川的面积约为100平方公里,是冰岛的第六大冰川。冰岛第四大冰川米尔达斯冰川(Mýrdalsjökull)与其毗邻。与艾雅法拉冰盖一样,米尔达斯冰川下也掩藏了一座活跃的火山,名为卡特拉(Katla)。艾雅法拉火山的爆发震慑了世人,其实卡特拉火山内蕴藏的能量要远远超过艾雅法拉。

两座火山的岩浆房实则彼此连通,艾雅法拉火山的爆发也意味着,卡特拉火山亦将在本世纪内大规模爆发。

Gígjökull等多条分支冰川从艾雅法拉注出,许多河流也得到冰川融水的滋养,冰岛南岸塞里雅兰瀑布的水源就来自于艾雅法拉冰川。

艾雅法拉火山爆发

冰岛是一个火山之国。1783~1784年的拉基火山大爆发(Laki)在冰岛与世界历史上都记下了浓墨重彩的一笔,巨量火山灰从冰岛飘至欧洲大陆,甚至间接导致了法国大革命的爆发。2010年3月20日、4月15日,历史再次重演,艾雅法拉火山两度喷发,滚滚浓烟从火山口源源不断地涌出。

最危险的还不是火山岩浆,而是随之而来的能够摧毁一切的强劲冰川洪流。800人从该地区撤离,动物被挪至室内,有呼吸系统问题的居民也必须留在室内。

欧洲的航空交通因火山爆发而全面阻滞,截止4月15日晚,火山灰已抵达英国、斯堪的纳维亚与德国部分地区。欧洲旅客们的行程也被滞留了8天之久,在苏格兰与爱尔兰地区,部分航班甚至被推迟了一月之久。

火山爆发中并无人员伤亡,但冰岛南部居民的呼吸系统却受到了不同程度的影响,许多农场也被火山灰与冰川洪流摧毁。

自公元874年冰岛有人定居以来,艾雅法拉火山曾爆发了4次,分别在公元920年、1612年、1821~1823年以及2010年。19世纪的火山爆发中逸出了大量氟化物,深刻影响了当时的冰岛人与冰岛动物的骨骼构造。

今朝的艾雅法拉火山

如今冰岛南岸已经重归平静,艾雅法拉也成为了颇受欢迎的安全旅游景点。在Hvolsvöllur小镇,游客可以参观火山展览,了解Þorvaldseyri农场在火山爆发后的重建与新生。

冰岛的火山都被严密监控着,游客无需担心会在冰岛旅行时遭遇火山爆发的危险。近期内,艾雅法拉火山没有爆发的可能,但卡特拉冰川已在“蠢蠢欲动”。

附近的旅行资源 埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖

所有种类 50km 半径

附近的景点 埃亚菲亚德拉冰盖

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