了解 赫伦瀑布群

赫伦瀑布群又名熔岩瀑布,是冰岛西部最热门的自然旅行景点之一

赫伦瀑布群(Hraunfossar)又名熔岩瀑布,坐落于冰岛西部的博尔加峡湾地区(Borgarfjörður);无数条溪流从豪德门达熔岩原(Hallmundarhraun)泻出,汇聚成了这组秀丽旖旎的瀑布群。熔岩瀑布旁还坐落着另一座更加湍急的瀑布:儿童瀑布(Barnafoss)。

地质概况

赫伦瀑布群造型独特,瀑流从一片广袤熔岩原下汩汩流淌而出,别有一番自然野趣。冰岛第二大冰川朗格冰川(Langjökull)之下掩藏了多座火山,赫伦瀑布所栖的熔岩原即形成于其中的一次火山爆发。

瀑布的瀑流最终也将汇入自朗格冰川发源而出的白河(Hvítá)。同熔岩瀑布一样,白河亦是冰岛西部的著名自然景点之一,也是距离首都雷克雅未克最近的热门漂流地点,适合经验各异的漂流探险运动爱好者。水流丰沛的白河还滋养了黄金圈景区闻名遐迩的黄金瀑布(Gullfoss)。

冰岛西部的赫伦瀑布群,也即熔岩瀑布,并非只有一座瀑布,而是由数百条溪流汇成

赫伦瀑布群为火山运动所塑造,熔岩原下也隐藏着许多神秘的火山通道与洞穴。冰岛最长的岩洞Víðgelmir即坐落于瀑布附近;洞穴长达1595米,高15.8米、宽16.5米,火山活动在这座熔岩洞穴的内壁上留下了奇妙的纹理与色彩。

瀑布与熔岩原近千年的地质历史尽显冰岛自然之迷人,洁白瀑流与黝黑熔岩原的强烈色彩对比营造出梦幻般的意境。许多奇诡的故事也在这片熔岩原上流传,根据冰岛民间传说,熔岩原就是骇人“巨魔”的家园。

熔岩瀑布旁的儿童瀑布也是冰岛西部的一处著名景点。与熔岩瀑布的宽阔平缓不同,儿童瀑布更加狭窄、更为湍急、瀑布规模也更小。奔涌无前的儿童瀑布背后,还有一个悲伤的传说。

相传儿童瀑布上曾有一座石桥,而在在过桥时,附近农场的两个男孩掉入瀑流中,不幸溺死。一说悲痛欲绝的母亲盛怒之下将石桥捣毁,一说母亲用冰岛如尼文字对石桥施以诅咒,其他过桥的人也将如她的儿子们一样,溺毙河中;直到石桥被地震摧毁,诅咒才被解除。无论传说如何,这座石桥如今已不复存在。这座湍急无情的瀑布也由此得名:儿童瀑布。

周围景点

距离赫伦瀑布群最近的聚落是雷克霍特小镇(Reykholt)。雷克霍特是冰岛的历史文化名镇,也是北欧中世纪文学家、史学家与贵族首领斯诺里·斯图鲁松(Snorri Sturluson)的故乡。斯诺里创作了《挪威列王传》(Heimskringla)等传世之作,以经典的萨迦笔法记录了挪威国王的历史;他的《散文埃达》是记载北欧神话最重要的文献,《雷神》等电影大片的情节就取自这部作品。

在雷克霍特镇上的Snorrastofa博物馆,游客可以了解到斯诺里的生平与作品,以及冰岛中世纪恢弘而动荡的历史。家族征战、权力斗争、国王干涉,不亚于《权力的游戏》的征伐漫长而残酷,最终导致冰岛丧失独立、并入挪威。

历史悠久的博尔加内斯小镇(Borgarnes)也距离熔岩瀑布不远。博尔加内斯是冰岛最早有人定居的地点之一,著名《埃吉尔萨迦》(Egils saga)的故事情节即发生于这一地区。游客可以参观镇上的定居中心博物馆,了解千年之前的冰岛历史起源。

附近的旅行资源 赫伦瀑布群

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附近的景点 赫伦瀑布群

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