了解 史托克间歇泉

冰岛黄金圈景区史托克间歇泉的壮丽喷发

史托克间歇泉(Strokkur)位于冰岛西南岸的黄金圈景区,是最活跃、最热门的冰岛地热景观之一,与黄金瀑布(Gullfoss)、辛格维利尔国家公园(Þingvellir)共同组成了黄金圈景区的三大经典景点。

史托克间歇泉位于Haukadalur地热山谷,也即盖歇尔间歇泉地热区,闻名遐迩的盖歇尔大间歇泉就坐落于史托克旁。如今盖歇尔自身已鲜少喷发,史托克一跃成为最活跃的间歇泉,其喷发频率也更加稳定,每隔5~10分钟便喷出一道20~40米高的壮丽水柱。许多游客都会手持相机,静静等待喷发的瞬间,在水柱腾空的片刻按下快门,记录下地球的磅礴呼吸。

Haukadalur地热山谷

每隔5~10分钟,冰岛黄金圈景区的史托克间歇泉就能喷发出数十米高的水柱

史托克与盖歇尔两大间歇泉都栖居于Haukadalur地热山谷中,被沸泥潭、蒸汽孔、小喷泉、小间歇泉等地质奇观环绕,尽显冰岛地心世界的澎湃与激情。地热山谷的地表也被硫、铜、铁等矿物元素浸染,析出黄、绿、红等斑斓的颜色。

地热山谷对面的游客中心区域设施齐全,设有餐厅、咖啡厅、酒店与旅游纪念品商店。

间歇泉

史托克间歇泉位于冰岛黄金圈地区的Haukadalur地热山谷中

间歇泉是十分罕见的地质奇观,如史托克一般活跃的间歇泉更是举世罕见。间歇泉的形成原理较为复杂,只有在地热活动极为活跃的区域才有机会形成。

首先,地表之下的热能必须足够丰富;岩浆房必须足够靠近地表,才能将岩石加热至足以使水体沸腾的程度。冰岛位于北美与亚欧两大地质板块交界的裂谷之上,地热能源极为丰沛。

其次,地表之下必须有流动的地下水。滋养史托克间歇泉的地下水来自冰岛第二大冰川——朗格冰川(Langjökull);冰川融水渗入多孔的熔岩原,从而积蓄了丰富的地下水资源。辛格维利尔国家公园中的一些地方,地下水就能直接涌出地表,形成清澈的泉水。

最后,地下必须有复杂的通道系统,使水体得以在储水囊中积聚,地表也需有一开口,使水体能够顺利喷出地表。气孔周围还必须有硅华阻挡,以防水体喷出地表后立即逸散。

环境问题

盖歇尔间歇泉的喷发频率很不稳定,于是在上个世纪时,人们曾向间歇泉中灌注肥皂,以促进其喷发,但这种举措也损坏了气孔的结构,阻碍了水体上升至地表。有了前车之鉴,冰岛人始终致力于史托克间歇泉地区的自然保护,不允许游客靠近间歇泉气孔。

2015年,智利/丹麦艺术家Marco Evaristti曾将食品染料倒入史托克间歇泉,使其喷发出粉色的水柱;艺术家说,这是为了强调自然是人类共有的,并且纯天然的食品染料无毒无害。这种“艺术”行为遭到了冰岛人的强烈谴责,艺术家也因此被捕,并被处以罚款(但艺术家并未缴纳)。冰岛的自然生态需要得到妥善的保护,请游客务必做到不留痕旅行

附近的旅行资源 史托克间歇泉

所有种类 50km 半径

附近的景点 史托克间歇泉

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